Knowing how to install tiles is essential if you want to save a very large amount of money. In this article you will find tips that will make your work easier.
Before you start
The ceramic floor is not made of porcelain, veneer or stone. But it is a ceramic suitable for any environment, because they come with different characteristics, so you can find the right one for your needs.
The floor where you place the pottery should have a slope if water usually reaches it. This is calculated at a minimum of 1 x 1000 for rain or 3 x 1000 for home drainage.
This calculation must be taken into account when choosing the size of the pottery, for example if it is a bathroom or a kitchen and if there is a single network in the center, there are 4 slopes that converge at a point.
In this case, it is advisable to choose smaller ceramic tiles, which are able to absorb the difference in several pieces and not notice a kind of breakage if there is a change in the slope.
If the leak is in one of the corners of the space, then there is a single uneven pause to be absorbed. You have to be careful in this circumstance, because it is not just an aesthetic problem, but if sudden projections are generated, accidents can be generated.
In the case of free-flowing floors, such as a gallery leading to the outside, the slope is in one direction, so the size of the ceramic tiles would not have much relevance.
Laying the floor and preparing the surface
It is essential that the surface to be covered is properly leveled, firm, dry and clean.
The slope must be adequate, flat and, if there is a defect, it must not be more than 5 mm thick.
A new ceramic floor is placed on a file, and in the case of a remodel, sometimes it is possible to do it on the existing floor, but it must be very firm. If the file is old, the surface must not be sandy or dusty.
Finally, you should always make a plan with the design taking into account the size of the chosen tiles, in order to be able to calculate the number of parts needed, their distribution and the thickness of which should be the joints.
It is not a minor detail, it is to buy 10 to 15% more parts that you have available if they need to be replaced.
The cuts should be placed in the least visible areas, such as behind the toilet, under countertops, behind the refrigerator, etc.
If the floor and wall tiles are the same, the joints must coincide so that the coating has continuity. In this case, the cuts must be in the least exposed sectors, both for the floor and for the walls.
If models are made, they must be designed so that they are in central points or in places without furniture. This is done with axes where they will be and starting with the placement from that point.
Example of laying a ceramic floor
To exemplify the work and make it easier to understand, we will detail the location of the pottery in a gallery.
In this case, large ceramics of 40 x 40 cm are used, with 10 x 10 cm blocks and a washed stone protection.
The pottery of the central canvas is cut at an equal angle from the heel, for this the 2 diagonals of the latter must be marked with fiber, and the tip of a large pottery is placed on one of the resulting triangles, and where you finish the heel, mark each side, joining the two signs with a line.
With the ceramic cutter we continue to cut, making sure that the drawn line coincides with the cutting line.
The cut piece will serve as a mold for the others to be cut.
Location of ceramics
- Ceramic adhesive
- Floor dryer
- Notched trowel no. 12
- Chalk thread
- Ceramic milling cutter
Step by step
Follow the placement guides to do this, chalk the two perpendicular axes in the center of the surface. You can also mark the auxiliary guides and the perimeter tour, if necessary.
For starters, the adhesive must be prepared according to the instructions in the container and to spread it, use the trowel, always taking into account that the rougher the back surface of the ceramic and the more uneven the floor, the larger the teeth must be. , so as to take more glue.
Using the previously marked axes, apply the adhesive to the floor with a spoon of masonry and spread it with the notched trowel that covers the entire surface between the floor and the ceramic, there should be no gaps, otherwise the piece can break on the step.
Try to maintain a certain inclination and firmness towards the ground, from the axes to the 4 sides. At that moment, the pottery is placed at an angle to the corners.
Level the parts by lightly touching the spoon handle and remove excess adhesive to clean the joints.
It is important to maintain the thickness of the joints with a cross at each tip, which should be the ideal size as needed. Then place two pieces on top and two on the bottom, matching the cut corners. In empty places, place chubby.
Throughout the work you need to clean the excess adhesive left on the pieces with a sponge.
Once the pieces are firm, remove the alignment crosses, avoiding ironing on the ceramic until at least 24 hours have passed.
The edge pieces are placed in the corners, for this you can help from the auxiliary axes. Separation joints must be wide and aligned.
Once the pottery is firm, the separated stone guard is placed in the space that remains between the perimeter pieces and the central canvas.
To glue them, place the adhesive with a spatula and, to apply it evenly, it is useful to use a ruler as a guide. Just spread the stones on the glue.
After 24 hours of placement, spread the paste, which is prepared with one part water and three parts product.
You need to fill the joints well, for this use a rubber dryer with diagonal movements towards them and pass several times until you check if they are well complete. In the stone guard, the pastry is spread with a sponge.
The remains are removed with a damp sponge and, if they have already dried, with a spatula.